Share Loading the player Moneyin and of itself, is nothing. It can be a shell, a metal coin, or a piece of paper with a historic image on it, but the value that people place on it has nothing to do with the physical value of the money. Money derives its value by being a medium of exchange, a unit of measurement and a storehouse for wealth.
Monetarists assume that the velocity of money is unaffected by monetary policy at least in the long runand the real value of output is determined in the long run by the productive capacity of the economy.
Under these assumptions, the primary driver of the change in the general price level is changes in the quantity of money. With exogenous velocity that is, velocity being determined externally and not being influenced by monetary policythe money supply determines the value of nominal output which equals final expenditure in the short run.
In practice, velocity is not exogenous in the short run, and so the formula does not necessarily imply a stable short-run relationship between the money supply and nominal output. However, in the long run, changes in velocity are assumed to be determined by the evolution of the payments mechanism.
If velocity is relatively unaffected by monetary policy, the long-run rate of increase in prices the inflation rate is equal to the long-run growth rate of the money supply plus the exogenous long-run rate of velocity growth minus the long run growth rate of real output.
For example, investment in market productioninfrastructure, education, and preventive health care can all grow an economy in greater amounts than the investment spending. In this view, while generally grounded in monetarism, future expectations and strategies are important for inflation as well.
A core assertion of rational expectations theory is that actors will seek to "head off" central-bank decisions by acting in ways that fulfill predictions of higher inflation. This means that central banks must establish their credibility in fighting inflation, or economic actors will make bets that the central bank will expand the money supply rapidly enough to prevent recession, even at the expense of exacerbating inflation.
Thus, if a central bank has a reputation as being "soft" on inflation, when it announces a new policy of fighting inflation with restrictive monetary growth economic agents will not believe that the policy will persist; their inflationary expectations will remain high, and so will inflation.
On the other hand, if the central bank has a reputation of being "tough" on inflation, then such a policy announcement will be believed and inflationary expectations will come down rapidly, thus allowing inflation itself to come down rapidly with minimal economic disruption.
Austrian School and Monetary inflation The Austrian School stresses that inflation is not uniform over all assets, goods, and services. Inflation depends on differences in markets and on where newly created money and credit enter the economy.
Real bills doctrine The real bills doctrine asserts that banks should issue their money in exchange for short-term real bills of adequate value.
As long as banks only issue a dollar in exchange for assets worth at least a dollar, the issuing bank's assets will naturally move in step with its issuance of money, and the money will hold its value. Should the bank fail to get or maintain assets of adequate value, then the bank's money will lose value, just as any financial security will lose value if its asset backing diminishes.
The real bills doctrine also known as the backing theory thus asserts that inflation results when money outruns its issuer's assets.
The quantity theory of money, in contrast, claims that inflation results when money outruns the economy's production of goods. Currency and banking schools of economics argue the RBD, that banks should also be able to issue currency against bills of trading, which is "real bills" that they buy from merchants.
This theory was important in the 19th century in debates between "Banking" and "Currency" schools of monetary soundness, and in the formation of the Federal Reserve.
In the wake of the collapse of the international gold standard postand the move towards deficit financing of government, RBD has remained a minor topic, primarily of interest in limited contexts, such as currency boards.
It is generally held in ill repute today, with Frederic Mishkina governor of the Federal Reserve going so far as to say it had been "completely discredited.
In the 19th century the banking schools had greater influence in policy in the United States and Great Britain, while the currency schools had more influence "on the continent", that is in non-British countries, particularly in the Latin Monetary Union and the earlier Scandinavia monetary union.
General[ edit ] An increase in the general level of prices implies a decrease in the purchasing power of the currency. That is, when the general level of prices rise, each monetary unit buys fewer goods and services. The effect of inflation is not distributed evenly in the economy, and as a consequence there are hidden costs to some and benefits to others from this decrease in the purchasing power of money.
For example, with inflation, those segments in society which own physical assets, such as property, stock etc. Their ability to do so will depend on the degree to which their income is fixed. For example, increases in payments to workers and pensioners often lag behind inflation, and for some people income is fixed.
Also, individuals or institutions with cash assets will experience a decline in the purchasing power of the cash. Increases in the price level inflation erode the real value of money the functional currency and other items with an underlying monetary nature.
Debtors who have debts with a fixed nominal rate of interest will see a reduction in the "real" interest rate as the inflation rate rises. The real interest on a loan is the nominal rate minus the inflation rate. Any unexpected increase in the inflation rate would decrease the real interest rate.
Banks and other lenders adjust for this inflation risk either by including an inflation risk premium to fixed interest rate loans, or lending at an adjustable rate. Negative[ edit ] High or unpredictable inflation rates are regarded as harmful to an overall economy. They add inefficiencies in the market, and make it difficult for companies to budget or plan long-term.
Inflation can act as a drag on productivity as companies are forced to shift resources away from products and services to focus on profit and losses from currency inflation. For instance, inflated earnings push taxpayers into higher income tax rates unless the tax brackets are indexed to inflation.
With high inflation, purchasing power is redistributed from those on fixed nominal incomes, such as some pensioners whose pensions are not indexed to the price level, towards those with variable incomes whose earnings may better keep pace with the inflation.Economics: Economics, social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth.
Economics was formerly a hobby of gentlemen of leisure, but today there is hardly a government, international agency, or large commercial bank that does not have its .
The supply of money not only is the best indicator as to the value of money, but reflects the state of the nation and the thinking of the people. Debauch the Currency Lenin is said to have declared that the best way to destroy the . The History of Money ashio-midori.com 2 Money gradually developed out of various different features of early societies, such as ceremonies and feasts, or compensation for killing a man or a bride-price for marrying a woman.
Objects of gold and silver were used in religious activities, as sacrifices and gifts to gods and priests and priestesses. In the late 18th century, with the land used to grow tobacco nearly exhausted, the South faced an economic crisis, and the continued growth of slavery in America seemed in doubt.
THE HISTORY OF MONEY From Its Origins to Our Time Power, Money, Land and Debt Throughout history, the people who have had most power have almost been rich. That is one feature of today's international economy that many people think is unfair. Powerful people had always owned most land, but the increasing use of money helped.
The objective of the study is to analyze the economic effect of money laundering in Nigeria. Research Questions I.
What are the economic implications of money laundering in Nigeria? II. How effective is the Anti-money laundering policy in .