I want to start with some apologies. For the record, here and upfront, I apologise for having spent several years ripping up GM crops. I am also sorry that I helped to start the anti-GM movement back in the mid s, and that I thereby assisted in demonising an important technological option which can be used to benefit the environment.
Issuance of legal tender see seigniorage   Privileges that are less location dependent but that still exclude others from natural opportunities patents   Where free competition is impossible, such as telegraphs, water, gas, and transportation, George wrote, "[S]uch business becomes a proper social function, which should be controlled and managed by and Land lord lecture paper the whole people concerned.
Because pollution is a negative contribution, a taking from the commons or a cost imposed on others, its value is economic renteven when the polluter is not receiving an explicit income.
Therefore, to the extent that society determines pollution to be harmful, most Georgists propose to limit pollution with taxation or quotas that capture the resulting rents for public use, restoration, or a citizen's dividend. Conservation is the central issue of ecology, whereas economic rent is the central issue of geoism.
Ecological economists might price pollution fines more conservatively to prevent inherently unquantifiable damage to the environment, whereas Georgists might emphasize mediation between conflicting interests and human rights.
To the extent that geoists recognize the effect of pollution or share conservationist values, they will agree with ecological economists about the need to limit pollution, but geoists will also insist that pollution rents generated from those conservation efforts do not accrue to polluters and are instead used for public purposes or to compensate those who suffer the negative effects of pollution.
Ecological economists advocate similar pollution restrictions but, emphasizing conservation first, might be willing to grant private polluters the privilege to capture pollution rents.
To the extent that ecological economists share the geoist view of social justice, they would advocate auctioning pollution quotas instead of giving them away for free.
Introducing a land value tax greater than the value of existing taxes would, at an uncertain point, inevitably cause the price of all land titles to decrease.
George did not believe landowners should be compensated, and described the issue as being analogous to compensation for former slave owners. Other geoists disagree Land lord lecture paper the question of compensation; some advocate complete compensation while others endorse only enough compensation required to achieve Georgist reforms.
Geoists have also long differed from George as to the degree of rent capture needed.
Historically, those who advocated for public rent tax only great enough to replace other taxes were known as endorsers of single tax limited. Synonyms and variants[ edit ] Most early advocacy groups described themselves as Single Taxers, and George reluctantly accepted "single tax" as an accurate name for his main political goal—the repeal of all unjust or inefficient taxes, to be replaced with a land value tax LVT.
Some modern proponents are dissatisfied with the name Georgist. While Henry George was well known throughout his life, he has been largely forgotten by the public and the idea of a single tax of land predates him. The terms Earth Sharing,  geonomics,  and geolibertarianism  see Libertarianism are also used by some Georgists.
These terms represent a difference of emphasis, and sometimes real differences about how land rent should be spent citizen's dividend or just replacing other taxes ; but all agree that land rent should be recovered from its private recipients.
Compulsory fines and fees related to land rents are the most common Georgist policies, but some geoists prefer voluntary value capture systems that rely on methods such as non-compulsory or self-assessed location value fees, community land trusts and purchasing land value covenants.
Today, this relatively conservative adaptation is usually considered incompatible with true geolibertarianismwhich requires that excess rents be gathered and then distributed back to residents.
During Henry George's time, this restrained Georgist philosophy was known as "single tax limited", as opposed to "single tax unlimited". Henry George disagreed with the limited interpretation but accepted its adherents e. Georgist ideas heavily influenced the politics of the early 20th century.
In the UK duringthe Liberal Government included a land tax as part of several taxes in the People's Budget intended to redistribute wealth including a progressively graded income tax and an increase of inheritance tax.
This caused a crisis which resulted indirectly in reform of the House of Lords. The budget was passed eventually—but without the land tax. However, this was repealed in by the National Government before it could be implemented.
It formed part of a centre-left government —60 and was also represented in the European Parliament — The influence of Henry George has waned over time, but Georgist ideas still occasionally emerge in politics.
Two such communities that still exist are Arden, Delawarewhich was founded in by Frank Stephens and Will Priceand Fairhope, Alabamawhich was founded in by the auspices of the Fairhope Single Tax Corporation.
Years later, in his capacity as a city alderman, he was selected to serve as Houston Tax Commissioner, and promulgated a "Houston Plan of Taxation" in Improvements to land and merchants' inventories were taxed at 25 percent of appraised value, unimproved land was taxed at 70 percent of appraisal, and personal property was exempt.
This Georgist tax continued untilwhen two courts struck it down as violating the Texas Constitution in This quashed efforts in several other Texas cities which took steps towards implementing the Houston Plan in Its sole source of government revenue was the land value tax of six percent which it levied in its territory.
The German government had previously had economic problems with its African colonies caused by land speculation.
One of the main reasons for using the land value tax in Jiaozhou Bay was to eliminate such speculation, which the policy achieved.
In the territory was returned to China. In these countries, governments still levy some type of land value tax, albeit with exemptions. One exception is the town of Altoona, Pennsylvaniawhich for a time in the 21st century only taxed land value, phasing in the tax inrelying on it entirely for tax revenue fromand ending it ; the Financial Times noted that "Altoona is using LVT in a city where neither land nor buildings have much value".
It "seeks to improve the dialogue about urban development, the built environment, and tax policy in the United States and abroad".
Specifically, Marshall was upset about the idea of rapid change and the unfairness of not compensating existing landowners. In his lectures on Progress and Poverty, Marshall opposed George's position on compensation while fully endorsing his ultimate remedy.Forty years ago today, on October 8, , the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) team began their historic, first ever in-depth scientific examination of the Shroud of Turin in a makeshift "laboratory" in the Royal Palace of Turin.
The examination took place over a period of five days and nights, from October 8 through 13, The Institution records the lectures which take place at the London Headquarters.
We hope this will make it easily accessible for our members across the globe and ensure all members can benefit from watching these lectures and meetings free of charge, not least for CPD purposes.
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