Ascott later recalled that one of the aims was to create disorientation "within an environment that is sometimes unexpectedly confusing, where [the artist] is faced with problems that seem absurd, aimless or terrifying … Pete Townshend sat on a trolley for three weeks, because he wasn't allowed to use his legs and [Brian] Eno went around with a bag on his head.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Types of motion pictures Most connoisseurs of the art of motion pictures feel that the greatest films are the artistic and personal expression of strong directors. The experimental includes the variety of approaches that have tested and played with the technological limits and capabilities of the medium, including animated nonphotographic and computer-generated images.
Each of these three modes can in turn be subdivided into genres i. The documentary The turn of the 20th century witnessed not only the invention of the motion picture but also tremendous growth of popular interest in journalism, picture postcards, lectures by travelers frequently illustrated with slidesand so forth.
Some of the first motion pictures depicted exotic locations, contemporary events battles, coronationsand unknown cultures.
Indeed, as late as such a major company as Biograph actually produced more nonfiction films than narratives. This would soon change, in part because the production of documentary films is dependent on world events and is therefore more haphazard and more difficult than the fully controlled process of making fiction films in studios.
Moviegoers were no longer drawn to the sheer recording ability of motion pictures; they demanded imaginative entertainment instead. Travelogues and ethnographic films One sort of film that has had continuous appeal, albeit for a specialized audience, has been the travel film.
Flaherty proved, however, that there could also be tremendous artistry in such films. His unforgettable compositions matched the harmonious rhythm of his editing to render the lives of his subjects in a gloriously romantic tone.
Scene from Nanook of the Northdocumentary film directed by Robert Flaherty. Courtesy of International Film Seminars, Inc. In Hollywood, King Kongone of the most famous monster movies ever made, was conceived by producer-director Merian C.
Cooper, who was inspired by his experience shooting travel documentaries. The surprising success of The Gods Must Be Crazya comedy about life in the Kalahari desert of Botswana, shows that audiences half a century later continued to enjoy a mixture of foreign locations and familiar dramas.
Most scholars prefer that all artistry be eliminated from ethnographic films so that the visual data recorded by the camera remain as fresh and uninterpreted as possible. The audience for these films typically consists of members of a university or museum community for whom entertainment is less significant than authenticity.
When such films are prepared for mass television audiences, however, many concessions may be necessary, including the addition of extensive explanatory narration, musical accompaniment, and scenic photography. Newsreels and documentaries The argument over the role of art and artlessness in travelogues and ethnographic films is also pertinent to newsreels, where the standard principles governing journalism must apply.
Since then, viewers have required that newsreel material be neither prearranged nor fabricated, and they have become aware of the effects of the intrusiveness of the reporter and the limitations of point of view on the objectivity of any documentary film.
News films, more than any other type of motion picture, depend on their timeliness. Hence, for all of its ability to show the actual world, the motion picture failed to provide genuine news until it did so by means of television. Too stale and infrequent for day-to-day coverage, newsreels showed not news but parades, ceremonies, sporting events, bridge building, and similar events.
The March of Timeinspired by Time magazine and produced by Louis de Rochemont from towas a series in which a topic of political or social importance was discussed in depth in a minute film. The series was an immediate and continued success.
From the midth century, however, it was television that developed the screen presentation of news, comment, and discussion beyond anything known before. It is less in the straight presentation of reality than in its creative interpretation that the documentary has produced works of lasting value.
Among the pioneers of the documentary besides Flaherty were the Russian theorist Dziga Vertovwhose films include Chelovek s kinoapparatom ; The Man with the Movie Cameraand the British producer-director John Griersonwhose Drifters inspired a school of fine directors to produce a succession of memorable documentaries through the s.
Though often untidy, they are fresh and realistic. Television deeply affected the development of the documentary film in two major ways: Point of Orderan American documentary film that ran successfully in motion-picture theatres, was made from television films of the U.Experimental Cinema, The Film Reader brings together key writings on American avant-garde cinema to explore the long tradition of underground filmmaking from its origins in the s to the work of contemporary film and video artists.
Founded in , the University of Illinois Press (ashio-midori.com) ranks as one of the country's larger and most distinguished university ashio-midori.com Press publishes more than new books and 30 scholarly journals each year in an array of subjects including American history, labor history, sports history, folklore, food, film, American .
"Experimental Cinema: The Film Reader offers a wide selection of history, theory, criticism, interviews, and original writings by filmmakers of the American avant-garde.
UbuWeb Top Ten June Samuel Andreyev 1. George Antheil, Ballet Mécanique [MP3] 2. Paul Dutton, Reverberations [MP3] 3. Anton Webern, Fünf Sätze [MP3] 4.
Edgard Varèse, Déserts (world premiere) [MP3] 5. The Film Society of Lincoln Center was founded in to celebrate cinema, to support new filmmakers, and to enhance awareness and understanding of film. Founded in , the University of Illinois Press (ashio-midori.com) ranks as one of the country's larger and most distinguished university ashio-midori.com Press publishes more than new books and 30 scholarly journals each year in an array of subjects including American history, labor history, sports history, folklore, food, film, American music, American religion, African American.