The University of Michigan Library Copyright Office provides help with copyright questions for University of Michigan faculty, staff and students. Please email us with questions or visit our website for more information. Legal Advice The information presented here is intended for informational purposes and should not be construed as legal advice. If you have specific legal questions pertaining to the University of Michigan, please contact the Office of the General Counsel.
Students are responsible for obtaining and providing proof of permission to use copyrighted material to the Thesis Office. Students preparing theses and dissertations must be aware of how to protect their own works and how to avoid infringing upon the works of others. Some materials that require permission: Any material, including journal articles, figures, tables, survey instruments, and questionnaires, that has been published requires permission even if the student is the original creator of these works as copyright is usually transferred in order to publish.
Life of the author, plus 70 years. Created in or after by an anonymous or pseudonymous author, or by a corporate author, or a work-made-for-hire. The earlier of either 95 years from publication, or years from creation. Created beforebut not published.
The latter of either 70 years after the death of the author, or through December 31, The expiration date is extended through December 31,if the copyright owner publishes the work before the end of Published after and before with copyright notice and renewed if required.
Created and published before Material found on the Internet is no different than material from a book, journal, or other publication. Easy access and wide availability does not nullify copyright. Notice of Copyright Copyright protection is obtained by placing notice of copyright on the thesis or dissertation.
Registration is accomplished by filing federal form TX with the U. Registration of copyright allows the owner to qualify for an award of statutory damages in cases of infringement.
Otherwise, a copyright owner will be awarded actual damages only. Students must use the credit line specified by the copyright owner and place it where required by the owner.
All sources must be cited whenever use is made of the material of others, even if the use is limited and no copyright permission is necessary.
Direct use of the work of others without citing the source is plagiarism. Use of Journal Articles in Theses or Dissertations Obtaining Approval If students wish to use articles accepted or published by reputable scholarly journals in a thesis or dissertation or to type the thesis or dissertation in the style of a particular journal for subsequent submission, they must first obtain the recommendation and approval of the supervisory committee.
Use of Previously Published Material Appendix B outlines the procedures for the incorporation of previously published, accepted, and submitted articles as chapters of a thesis or dissertation. A thesis or dissertation containing one or more articles published by a scholarly journal must meet all format specifications outlined in this handbook.
Previously published articles are treated as separate chapters or titled sections. They may be combined in a manuscript with chapters that have not been previously published.
Reprints of previously published articles used in theses and dissertations must meet University margin requirements. Pages of reprints must still be numbered in sequence with the rest of the manuscript.
More than one reprint may be used in the thesis or dissertation if the specifications noted above are met and the supervisory committee considers the subject materials to be related. One reprint may be used as all of the thesis or dissertation if the specifications noted above are met.
The title of the thesis or dissertation must reflect the entire work. There must be an abstract summarizing the entire work, even though individual chapters may have abstracts. Citation and reference style may vary for published chapters. Any use of previously published material requires that permission to quote copyrighted material be obtained from the copyright owner s and filed in the Thesis Office.
Multiple author release sif required, must also be filed. Use of Material Accepted for Publication An article or articles that are accepted by journals but have not yet been published may be used as part of a thesis or dissertation.
Property Rights Publication rights copyright are reserved by the author, subject to the provisions of research contracts, patent rights, or other agreements made by the author with the University.*An essay is a piece of writing usually written from an author's personal point of view that analyses and evaluates an issue or a topic.
Writing an essay means to express your academic opinion on a particular matter. Possible types include: descriptive essay, narrative essay, compare and contrast essay, persuasive essay, argumentative essay etc.
dissertation and copyright. In the U.S., registration is required before you can file an infringement lawsuit. You should therefore register before that possibility ever arises then hope it never does. The following are the kinds of materials that we might expect to see accompanied by a permission letter if they appear in your manuscript, or that may cause us to contact you regarding permission.
In terms of your dissertation or thesis and copyright, there are two considerations: how to avoid infringing on someone else's copyright, and how to protect your own copyright. Outside of becoming an.
Registration of copyright allows the owner to qualify for an award of statutory damages in cases of infringement.
Otherwise, a copyright owner will be awarded actual damages only. Avoiding Infringement.
For the most part,* reproducing material in your dissertation or thesis will fall under the umbrella of fair use.
That said, whenever you include previously published materials in your work you should carefully consider whether an argument for fair use can be made.