As change seems to be a constant factor in social work, the particular focus of our work has altered over time to reflect changing concerns and currently we are participating in the PEPS Review. Additionally individual members of the committee have contributed to the PCF Refresh. NOPT organises an annual conference to bring practice educators and any other interested individuals together to consider the latest social work practice and policy issues and to share good practice. NOPT attempts to disseminate ideas and information and canvas the views of practice educators across the country to contribute to this debate.
The fact that many immigrant children were being taught in their native languages — including French, German, Dutch, and Swedish — was alarming to some 18th-century commentators, who feared a threat to political cohesion and the social order.
To some extent, the practice of teaching children in languages other than English — and the backlash against this practice — have persisted throughout the intervening years. Issues in current debate were framed by a Supreme Court case, Lau v. The lawyers for a young Chinese boy named Kenny Lau argued that it was unfair for him to be taught only in English, a language he didn't understand.
The Supreme Court agreed, ruling that it was the same thing as denying him an education — that is, a violation of his civil rights. The court did not prescribe any specific remedy, however. Schools could take a variety of approaches, from teaching English to students as quickly as possible to providing academic instruction in their native language s while helping them make a gradual transition into English.
These students needed all the help they could get.
Unfortunately, there was very little hard evidence to guide schools in figuring out the best way to provide that help. In the absence of research, most schools developed programs for English-language learners in accord with local circumstances availability of qualified personnel, funding constraints, number of students and their needs, etc.
English as a second language ESL Specified periods of instruction are aimed at developing students' English-language skills, with a primary focus on communication, grammar, and vocabulary.
Students may be from the same or different language backgrounds. Academic content is addressed through mainstream classes. In some cases, native-language support from a multilingual paraprofessional, for example is provided.
Typically, there is little or no native-language support. The goal of the program is to make the shift to English as quickly as possible approximately two to four years. The goal of the program is to develop academic proficiency in both English and the native language, with some native language instruction maintained for an extended period perhaps seven or more years.
Both groups of students receive instruction in both languages, with the goal of helping all students develop academic proficiency in both languages.
This program is often offered as a magnet school option. Beyond the philosophical debate, discussed below, several factors influence the type of program s that a given school or district is likely to adopt. These include school demographics type, number, and concentration of ELL studentsstudent characteristics age, academic background, and English-proficiency leveland available resources ability to find qualified personnel, availability of classroom spaceetc.
Data and Debate As the number of U. Although the positions of a few extremists may be grounded in xenophobic or ethnic separatist impulses, most of the conflicting viewpoints seem to arise from genuine concern over students' wellbeing. At the risk of oversimplifying the debate, these arguments fall into three basic camps.
First, the proponents of bilingual education some academic instruction in the native language argue that ELL students are harmed when schools sacrifice content knowledge on the altar of the earliest possible acquisition of English. The fact that students are taught to read in more than one language is seen as an important benefit that may prove valuable in later life.
It is argued further that bilingual education programs may foster stronger connections between the school and students' home cultures and communities, thereby reducing student alienation and related problems.The UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education The system was unable to locate the session you specified, please try another session id.
Appendix B: Choosing a Program Model** There are several variables that influence a district's decision to develop a specific type of program for the instruction of English-language learners (such as transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual, two-way bilingual, structured/sheltered immersion, or ESL program).
The UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education White Paper Excellence in Schools. [page 4] Lifting the morale and motivation of those who work in our schools, colleges and education authorities is as much about self-esteem and a belief that we really can succeed, as it is about anything that central government can do.
Lifelong learning is the "ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated" pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons.
Therefore, it not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship, and personal development, but also self-sustainability, as well as competitiveness and employability. Evolved from the term "life-long learners", .