Variations[ edit ] Directly self-denying statements[ edit ] The Epimenides paradox is a statement of the form "this statement is false".
His family was devoutly Jewish, and his father, grandfather, and great grandfather were all rabbis. He graduated in and began teaching the subject in France. In he was appointed to teach Social Sciences and Pedagogy at the University of Bordeaux, allowing him to teach the first ever official sociology courses in France.
Also inDurkheim married Louise Dreyfus, with whom he would eventually have two children. A Study in SociologySuicide. InDurkheim was finally given a promotion in the form of the chair of the Science of Education at the Sorbonne.
In he became a full professor and inhis position was changed to formally include sociology. Henceforth he was chair of the Science of Education and Sociology.
Here he gave lectures on a number of subjects and published a number of important essays as well as his final, and most important, major work The Elementary Forms of Religious LifeForms. The outbreak of World War I would prove to have disastrous consequences for Durkheim.
From this Durkheim would never recover and in November he died of a stroke, leaving his last great work, La Morale Moralitywith only a preliminary introduction. During his lifetime, Durkheim was politically engaged, yet kept these engagements rather discrete.
Nevertheless, he supported a number of socialist reforms, and had a number of important socialist friends, but never committed himself to the party and did not make political issues a primary concern.
Despite his muted political engagement, Durkheim was an ardent patriot of France. He hoped to use his sociology as a way to help a French society suffering under the strains of modernity, and during World War I he took up a position writing anti-German propaganda pamphlets, which in part use his sociological theories to help explain the fervent nationalism found in Germany.
Intellectual Development and Influences Durkheim was not the first thinker to attempt to make sociology a science. Auguste Comte, who wished to extend the scientific method to the social sciences, and Herbert Spencer, who developed an evolutionary utilitarian approach that he applied to different areas in the social sciences, made notable attempts and their work had a formative influence on Durkheim.
However, Durkheim was critical of these attempts at sociology and felt that neither had sufficiently divorced their analyses from metaphysical assumptions. While Durkheim incorporated elements of evolutionary theory into his own, he did so in a critical way, and was not interested in developing a grand theory of society as much as developing a perspective and a method that could be applied in diverse ways.
With Emile Boutroux, Durkheim read Comte and got the idea that sociology could have its own unique subject matter that was not reducible to any other field of study. Gabriel Monod and Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges, both historians, introduced Durkheim to systematic empirical and comparative methods that could be applied to history and the social sciences.
Charles Renouvier, a neo-Kantian philosopher, also had a large impact on Durkheim.Academic self-concept is the perception that a student has about his/her own academic abilities, constitutes one of the most relevant variables in the academic world, because of its influence on learning and cognitive functioning.
“Self-concept as a construct has had a long history within psychology and education because it provides a gauge to determine the effects of academic and social functioning on the emotional well-being of the individual” (Vaughn et al., , p.
54). The concept of the nuclear family emotional system describes four basic relationship patterns that govern where problems develop in a family. People’s attitudes and beliefs about relationships play a role in the patterns, but the forces primarily driving them are part of the emotional system.
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Self-concept and academic achievement is another bidirectional relationship: one’s self-concept can contribute to greater academic achievement, and academic achievement can feed back into one’s self-concept. Academic freedom, the freedom of teachers and students to teach, study, and pursue knowledge and research without unreasonable interference or restriction from law, institutional regulations, or public pressure.
Its basic elements include the freedom of teachers to inquire into any subject that.